Posts with the tag Kernel:

Adding new expressions to nftables


I’m recently writing something that uses Linux’s firewall framework to do some non-standard operations packets. Extending the kernel is required for my task but unfortunately documentations about this topic I find online are quite dated. These old documents are mainly for kernel version 2.4 and earlier 2.6.x, in which new matches or targets are registered by calling ipt_register_match and ipt_register_target. The related subsystem of kernel has changed a lot since then, and iptables has been replaced by nftables. Although we can use xt_register_match and xt_register_target instead, I prefer to move to the new nftables framework. Due to the lack of documentation, I have to dig into the source code of Linux kernel to figure out how things works, and this post is the note for that. As Linus Torvalds says in 2008, “Linux is evolution, not intelligent design”, the design and API of nftables might be changing very fast. So I’m not only trying to make a brief review on the design or API of nftables. But also, this post will serve as a guide on how to find the correct way of doing things by reading the kernel source code. The eager reader can go directly to the summary section. This post is based on kernel version 4.13, the most recent version when this post is started writing.

Here in this post, we will solve a toy problem: monitor all outgoing TCP traffic from port 80, if it contains the string given by the user, log it. I don’t assume any knowledge in the design or kernel API of nftables, but I do assume the reader has read and understand well the official documents on how to use nftables.